Pre-Columbian Mexico





Humans arrive

in Mexico


The oldest accepted human remains found in Mexico

are dated at roughly

13,000 - 12,000

years old .




One of the first civilizations

to emerge in Mexico




100 B.C. - 550 A.D

Little is known about the

builders of the massive

Pyramid of the Sun.

Reached its height between

150 and 450 AD and controlled

an area from northern Mexico

to Guatemala.

When Teotihuacan collapsed,

three cities in central

Mexico remained, Cholula,

Xochicalco and El Tajijn.




El Tajin


El Tajin had much influence on

the Gulf coast. Reached its

peak 600-900AD.



A holy city with the largest

pyramid in the world.

Most of its notable

architecture built between

about 700 and 1000 AD




Unlike Teotihuacan, it was fortified with moats and parapets. Most standing structures built 700-900 AD.






When Teotihuacan was

powerful, it acted as a

buffer between the cultures

of the Valley of Mexico and

the nomadic peoples to the

north .


With its downfall, nomadic

warriors entered the area

from the north,such as the

Toltecs. Toltecs found Tula

in 968 AD, the most important

city in Mexico between the

fall of Teotihuacan and the

rise of the Aztec




The Zapotecs dominated the area around Oaxaca with their city of Monte Alban for centuries.




(c. 2000 BC – 250 AD)

Preclassic period

(c. 250–900 AD)

Classic period

(c. 950–1539 AD)

Postclassic period

 (1511–1697 AD)

Spanish conquest


 The Mayans were famous for

with their amazing art,

architecture, glyph writing system

and astronomical knowledge .

By the close of the Pre-Classic

period, around 250 A.D.,

the Mayans were already

building their famous stepped

temple pyramids in cities

such as Uxactum and Tikal.

By the early 900s ,many of the

major cities were abandoned .


When the Spanish arrived they

found only the impoverished descendants of the

glory that was Mayan civilization .

Yet the Mayans were able to

fight off the Spanish for

over a hundred years. The last independent Maya kingdom of Tayasal, fell as late as 1697.



1428 - 1521 Aztec Empire

With the collapse of Tula in the

12th century, the primitive

Chichimecs groups again poured

into the Valley of Mexico from

the north. One of these were

the Aztecs,who would start to

control central Mexico

in the 1400s.


Collectively, certain Nahuatl speaking people migrated to the  Central Mexican valley in 13th A.D. from the north and the Spanish invasion are commonly referred to as the Aztecs. The Aztec empire was ruled by a political body called the Triple Alliance, made up of the Acolhua people of Texcoco, the Mexica in Tenochtitlán, and the Tepaneca people of Tlacopan. . In 1428 a Triple Alliance was established between Texcoco, Tlacopan and Tenochtitlán becoming the foundation of the Aztec Empire . Tenochtitlan quickly became dominant and ruled the Alliance by the time of the Spanish arrival  . The word ' Aztec '  is derived from Nahuatl meaning  ' people from Aztlan .'





Cortes and the Spanish Conquest 1517-1521




Spanish Expeditions
to Mexico



Story of Cortes-part1:

Early Life, Cuba(1506-19),




Story of Cortes

part 2:

Tabasco, Marina,

early 1519




Story of Cortes-part 3

Cortes Burns Ships,



Story of Cortes

part 4:

Cholula,March to

Aztec capital 


Story of Cortes-

part 5:Montezuma




Story of Cortes

part 6
Retreat (NocheTriste)
June 1520


 Story of Cortes part 7

Aztecs Surrender
August 1521

Modern View

of Cortes




Colonial Mexico 1519 - 1821








Converting the Indians  The Encomiendas

Gov in New Spain

Mixton War of 1540 -41

Virgin of Guadalupe

The Inquisition in Mexico

Cultural Life in New Spain

The Social Classes

Economy of New Spain

Colonial Architecture

Bourbon Reforms

Mexican Colonial Coins















Mexican War of Independence        First Mexican Empire         Early Republic




 War for Independence

1810 -1821

Napoleon's conquest of Spain

spurs calls for independence


Miguel Hidalgo and his Grito de Dolores

("Cry of Dolores")



First Mexican Empire 1821

General Agustín de Iturbide

declares himself emperor.


Leader of the antimonarchists  Antonio Lopes de

Santa Anna

restores Republic.



Early Mexican Republic

Centralist and Federalists vie

for power


Constitution of 1824


Pres.Victoria,Guerrero &



1829 Spanish invasion





Santa Anna            Mexican American War




Santa Anna
1833 - 47
Mayan Caste War
Republic of Rio Grande

Public was roused against Bustamante for execution of Guerrero and repression.


Santa Anna elected pres.


Recinds reforms and becomes centralist,states lose power.


Constitiution of 1836


His corruption and extravagence.


Rebellions against rule.



Revolt of Texas
Prelude to the Mexican American War 1846-4


Anglo-Americans allowed to settle Texas.


Reasons for Texas Rebellion.


Santa Anna captured at Battle

of San Jacinto


Santa Anna deposed

Treaty of Velasco


1838 Pastry War with France.

Santa Anna leads army to

drive out the French, becomes

pres. again



Mexican American War

Mexican-American War


American plans for Manifest Destiny,dispute over Texas.



Reasons for Mexican defeat.



Loss of half of Mexico





Revolution of Ayutla          French Intervention            Restored Republic




 Revolution of Ayutla,
1857 Constitution
War of the Reform 1857-61

Santa Anna sells Gadsen

Purchase in 1853.


Revolution of Ayutla to oust

Santa Anna,restore federal rule.


Constitution of 1857

Reforms to curb power of

military and church.


Brutal War of the Reform



Juarez becomes pres,

country bankrupt,

huge foreign debts



 French Intervention

Second Mexican Empire


English,Spaninsh and French

troops land to collect debt.


Napoleon III uses this as

pretext to invasion,Spanish,

English depart.


French defeat at Puebla


Maximilian becomes the

Emperor of Mexico


Emperor issues the Black Decree


  American Support for Juarez -Confederate Offer

Execution of the Emperor



Restored Republic


Juarez elected pres. 1867



and church reforms.


Rurales established to

stop banditry


Mexico City-Veracruz



Juarez dies 1876, Gen.Diaz,

hero of the French invasion,

seizes power





Diaz and the Porfiriato           Mexican Revolution            Obergon, Callas and the The Cristero War




Diaz and the Porfiriato

Foreign investment

encouraged through stability,

low wages and low taxes


Farmers and Indians

cheated of lands,put into debt peonage-no education


Railways,industry make great advances


 Madero,Villa,Zapata overthrow


Madero becomes pres.,

Coup by Gen.Huerta.

Huerta resigns,

Carranza becomes pres.

Carranza's Gen.Obregon

defeats Villa.

Constitution of 1917

Zapata and Villa assassinated

Obregon overthrows Carranza

Mexican Revolution



Obergon, Callas and the

The Cristero War 1920-1934

1921 Mexico was the worlds third largest producer of oil


Jose Vasconcelos as secretary

of education


Diego Rivera murals


Obregon assassinated

by Cristeno


Pres.Callas the






Cardenas and Nationalization        Camacho  & World War II       1947 - 2016 Post war Mexico




Cardenas and Oil

Nationalization 1934-40


Callas and his

supporters exiled


49,000,000 acres



 Nationalization of the

Oil Companies


World War II


Gov bank established

to help industry


Each one teach one


Mexican tankers were torpedoed

by German submarines

 Mexico declares war on Axis


Squadron 201 of the Mexican airforce fights in

Pacific theater


1947 - 2016
Post war economic
Boom and Bust

Postwar Mexico prosperous


1951 Mexican segment of the Pan-American Highway finished


1952 Women were allowed to vote


1968 Tlatelolco massacre and Olympics


Maquiladoras started late 60s


70-80s massive Peso devaluation, Huge debt IMF bailout


90s decline of Columbian drug

cartels leads to rise of

Mexican drug cartels,which now control 70% of the illegal

drug flow into the U.S.


2006 Pres.Calderon intensifies

war on cartels.





Mexican History Maps


Map of Mexican archeological sites

map of the The Viceroyalty of New  Spain

Map of the Mexican-American War

map of modern Mexico



Google map of Mexico



Quiz on Mexican history

Top Heroes and Villains in Mexican History

Mexican History Mp3s

Glossary with pronunciation

Epidemics in Mexican History




Mexican History Time Lines


Time line of Mexican History


Mexican RevolutionTimeline


Mexican-American War Timeline





Mexican History News


Mexico urged to rebuild public’s trust


Mexico has learned to stick with flexible peso:


Mexico's Vigilante Groups Continue On, But Remove Masks


Obama Plays Risky Game in Mexico With Embrace of Enrique Peña


Mexico's next president faces tough economy


Partial recount in Mexico presidential election ordered


Mexico's PRI party 'dinosaurs' roar back to life


Mexico's youngest police chief seeks asylum in U.S.


Maya tomb find could help explain collapse


New reality emerging on illegal immigration


Lost Mayan city of Mirador


Tomb of Aztec Emperor Ahuitzotl found


Museums honor Mexico’s milestones


Rise and Fall of the Maya


London show sheds light on Aztec Emperor


Mexico unveils archeological park


Mexico Quick Facts

Population: 111,211,789   11th largest in the world

GDP 1.47 Trillion    12th largest economy

7th Largest oil producer


Mexico has a rich history, going back 20 centuries .The Pre-Columbian cities in Mexico were the most populous in the world at their time with great advancements in art and building . Prior to the Spanish,the Mayans developed superbly built city-states in the Yucatan  and the city of Tectihuacan with a population of 200,000 in 600 A.D., made it the largest city in the world .Their Successors the Aztecs ruled over most of central Mexico . 
 Mexico a mestizo society where the native population and Spanish have blended to make the country what it is today, the native peoples still make up to 30% of the population.The country has been rocked by upheavals and the loss of almost half its territory in war, foreign invasion and revolution, yet still remains a vibrant country with a unique cultural identity which started to be called mexicanidad during the Mexican Revolution .








Baja Cave Paintings


National Museum of Mexican Art

Museo Nacional de Historia

Anahuacalli Museum

San Juan de Ulúa



War of the Pacific


War of the Triple Alliance


Link to MexicanHistory.org


Need a citation from this website ? Click here .




privacy    sitemap   




shopify traffic stats